Problems related to low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility of new drug candidates are an increasing challenge in pharmaceutical research and formulation development. One efficient way to improve solubility is the utilization of nanocrystallization techniques: pharmaceutical nanocrystals are solid drug particles covered by a stabilizer layer with approximated size typically between 100 and 500 nm. Nanocrystal studies have been conducted since the beginning of the 1990’s and the first product entered the market after 10 years of intensive research. At first, nanocrystals were utilized purely for improved dissolution, but today also controlled release applications are in use.
Non-linear Optical Imaging
Non-linear optical imaging is an emerging technique for imaging drugs and dosage forms . Non-linear optical imaging may be used for non-destructive, non-contact imaging of solid drugs and dosage forms. It offers chemical and structural specificity with no requirement for labels, sub-micron spatial resolution (inherent confocal nature), rapid video-rate image acquisition, and the ability to image samples in aqueous environments in situ.
These combined features make non-linear optical imaging unique compared to existing imaging approaches in the pharmaceutical setting and make the technique well suited to a wide range of solid-state formulation and drug delivery analyses. These include imaging chemical and solid-state form distributions in dosage forms, drug release and dosage form digestion, and drug and micro/nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. While non-linear optical imaging is comparatively well established in the biomedical field, pharmaceutical applications of non-linear optical imaging are much less widely explored.